Sunday, February 8, 2009


Parathyroid Hormone increases Itm2a.  LSJL upregulates a form of Itm2a.  Itm2a is a gene associated with height growth.  There is a patent for an antibody to inhibit Itm2a.

Enhanced ITM2A expression inhibits chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.

"The aim of this work was to characterise ASC in comparison to MSC in order to identify genes which may be involved in mechanisms causing the altered chondrogenic potential of ASC. Representational difference analysis was used to identify genes with higher expression in undifferentiated ASC than in MSC. Integral membrane protein 2A (ITM2A) was higher expressed in expanded ASC than in MSC in a donor-independent manner. During early chondrogenic differentiation in spheroid cultures ITM2A levels remained low in MSC and a transient down-regulation occurred in ASC correlating with successful chondrogenesis. Persisting ITM2A levels were found in non-differentiating ASC. Consistent with this finding, forced expression of ITM2A in the mouse mesenchymal stem cell line C3H10T1/2 prevented chondrogenic induction. ITM2A may in early stages of differentiation be associated with an inhibition of the initiation of chondrogenesis and elevated expression of ITM2A in ASC may therefore be linked to the poorer chondrogenic differentiation potential of these cells."

Even though Itm2a may inhibit chondrogenesis it may still be a marker for early endochondral ossification and may be evidence that LSJL can induce new growth plates.

"COL2A1 mRNA expression was not induced in the ITM2A over-expressing cells"

"Strong ITM2A expression has been shown in chondrocytes of the resting zone of the murine growth plate."

ITM2A is much more strongly expressed in chonondrogenic differentiation MSCs and chondrocytes than osteoblasts and adipo- and osteo- differentiating MSCs.

Genes more strongly expressed in ASC than MSCs also upregulated in LSJL:

Collagenase-3 (MMP-13) and integral membrane protein 2a (Itm2a) are marker genes of chondrogenic/osteoblastic cells in bone formation: sequential temporal, and spatial expression of Itm2a, alkaline phosphatase, MMP-13, and osteocalcin in the mouse.

" we compared the expression pattern of the recently cloned Itm2a and MMP-13 (collagenase-3) genes with that of established marker genes for bone formation, such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OC), and collagen type X, during endochondral and intramembranous ossification. During embryonic development expression of Itm2a and ALP was detectable at midgestation (11.5 days postcoitum [dpc]) and increased up to 16.5 dpc. MMP-13 and OC expression started at 14.5 dpc and 16.5 dpc, respectively. This temporal expression was reflected in the spatial distribution of these markers in the growth plate of long bones. In areas undergoing endochondral ossification Itm2a expression was found in chondrocytes of the resting and the proliferating zones. Expression of ALP and MMP-13 are mutually exclusive: ALP transcripts were found only in collagen type X positive hypertrophic chondrocytes of the upper zone. MMP-13 expression was restricted to chondrocytes of the lower zone of hypertrophic cartilage also expressing collagen type X. In osteoblasts involved in endochondral and intramembranous ossification Itm2a was not present. ALP, MMP-13, and OC were mutually exclusively expressed in these cells suggesting a differentiation-dependent sequential expression of ALP, MMP-13, and OC. The identification of the continuum of sequential expression of Itm2a, ALP, MMP-13, and OC will now allow us to establish a series of marker genes that are highly suitable to characterize bone cells during chondrocytic and osteoblastic differentiation in vivo."

"Hybridization with the Itm2a probe showed signals in the periosteum and perichondrium of the tibia and in the distal part of the growth plate. Cells of the mature bone did not express Itm2a at significant levels. Chondrocytes of the resting zone in the growth plate showed strong signals of Itm2a expression. In the proliferative zone, laterally located chondrocytes expressed Itm2a"

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