Wednesday, March 11, 2009

Platelet-Rich Plasma

Platelet-Rich Plasma for the Replenishment of Bone

"Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is the term applied to blood plasma enriched with platelets"

"Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) contains transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) that attracts osteoblast progenitors to sites needing new bone formation. PRP is produced from anticoagulated whole blood by removing red blood cells (RBCs) and leukocytes, and concentrating platelets in the product. The resulting plasma contains platelets, which when activated release significant amounts of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and TGF-β. After injection of PRP into sites of skeletal injury, the PRP serves as a source to locally increase the amounts of PDGF and TGF-β. It is thought that these factors recruit bone marrow stromal cells"<-can this TGF-B and recruitment of MSCs induce ectopic growth plates as well?

"PRP contains an angiogenesis inhibitor, thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1)."

"Osteoblast-specific overexpression of TGF-β in mice causes excess osteoclast activation leading to high turnover bone loss"<-could this excess osteoclast activation allow for new growth plate formation?

TGF-B1 is released by osteoclastic resorption.

Platelet-Rich Plasma in the Pathologic Processes of Cartilage: Review of Basic Science Evidence.

"The effects of PRP [include] increasing chondrocyte and mesenchymal stem cell proliferation, proteoglycan deposition, and type II collagen deposition. PRP was also found to increase the cell viability of chondrocytes and the migration and chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and to inhibit the effect of catabolic cytokines."

When Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells were cultured in 10% plasma both osteogenic and chondrogenic genes increased with chondrogenic genes being increased at a greater level.

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