Tuesday, June 12, 2012

Grow Taller with Enamel Matrix Derivitives?

Can the enamel on your teeth do more than help your teeth grow?  Can the help the long bones grow as well?  Unfortunately, you can't be amelogenin nor EMD(and you can't be sure whether it would reach the bone marrow or growth plates either).

Amelogenin expression in long bone and cartilage cells and in bone marrow progenitor cells

"The amelogenin protein is considered as the major molecular marker of developing ectodermal enamel.  Amelogenin [is expressed] in long bone cells, in cartilage cells, in cells of the epiphyseal growth plate, and in bone marrow stromal cells. "<-so a lot of cells that help you grow taller.

"Amelogenins are hydrophobic molecules that self-assemble in vitro and in vivo into nanospheric structures, which regulate the oriented and elongated growth, shape, and size of the enamel mineral crystal"

"Smaller amelogenin gene-spliced products, e.g., leucine-rich-amelogenin peptide (LRAP), have been suggested to be associated with cell signaling and to have chondrogenic and osteogenic potential"<-Amelogenin products LRAP which can differentiate into chondrocytes.

"sequencing of mRNA obtained from stromal cell samples from different human individuals confirmed that some of the pluripotent mesenchymal stem cells in the bone marrow (i.e., stromal cells) were indeed expressing amelogenin"<-So if the stem cells are already expressing amelogenin, can more amelogenin help stem cells differentiate into chondrocytes?

Effects of amelogenin on proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in vitro.

"No differences in the morphology of BMSCs or in cell numbers were found between amelogenin addition and additive-free groups. The promotion of ALPase activity and the formation of mineralized nodules were detected at an early stage in amelogenin addition group. In quantitative real-time RT-PCR, mRNA expression of osteopontin, osteonectin, and type I collagen was promoted for 0.5 hours and 24 hours by addition of amelogenin[were any chondrogenic genes changed?]. The mRNA expression of osteocalcin and DMP-1 was also stimulated for 24 hours and 0.5 hours, respectively, in amelogenin addition group. These findings clearly indicate that amelogenin promoted the differentiation and mineralization of rat BMSCs but did not affect cell proliferation or cell morphology."

Maybe they weren't cultured in the right medium.  So Amelogenin may not induce chondrogenesis on it's own.

"EMD contains TGF-β1 or a TGF-β-like substance and that EMD rapidly translocates smad2, which is an effector of the TGF-β signaling pathway, into the nucleus"<-Maybe using EMD itself would induce chondrogenesis due to TGF-Beta.  In the study they only used amelogenin.

"amelogenin enhanced mRNA expressions of BMP-2 and BMP-4 in rat BMSCs"<-pro-chondrogenic compounds.

Amelogenin splice isoforms stimulate chondrogenic differentiation of ATDC5 cells.

"Recombinant mouse M180- or LRAP-protein-containing medium or control medium was mixed with a chondrogenesis-stimulating medium, and changes in the phenotype, gene expression levels and cell proliferation of cultured ATDC5 cells were analysed.
The addition of amelogenins increased alkaline phosphatase activity and glycosaminoglycan secretion at 14 and 21 days of culture, respectively, as compared with the control. Quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) analysis revealed that LRAP increased the gene expression levels of Runx2, Col2a1 and Aggrecan at 7 days of differentiation. Moreover, both M180 and LRAP significantly increased the gene expression levels of ALP, Aggrecan, Col10a1 and osteopontin at 28 days of culture. Bromodeoxyuridine assay and Q-PCR analysis for Wnt signalling indicated that both M180 and LRAP reduced proliferation, but induced the cell differentiation possibly through altered non-canonical Wnt signalling."

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