Monday, June 4, 2012

Height by taking Lectins(DBA)?

Lectins influence chondrogenesis and osteogenesis in limb bud mesenchymal cells.

"The role of cell surface glycoproteins in cell behavior can be characterized by their interactions with plant lectins. Lectins [affect] chondrogenesis and osteogenesis in limb bud mesenchymal cells in vitro. Limb bud mesenchymal cells from mouse embryos were cultured in high-density micromass culture. Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), concanavalin A (ConA), peanut agglutinin (PNA), Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA) and Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA) were added separately to the culture media. Cells were cultured for 5 or 9 days, and cell viability was assayed by neutral red on day 5. Dolichos biflorus agglutinin induced an increase in chondrogenesis, calcium precipitation and proteoglycan production. ConA and PNA did not affect chondrocyte differentiation but induced chondrocytes to produce more proteoglycan. Wheat germ agglutinin reduced chondrification and ossification but induced mesenchymal cells to store lipid droplets. Ricinus communis agglutinin 1 was toxic and significantly reduced cell survival. DBA was the most effective inducer of ossification and chondrification. Wheat germ agglutinin induced adipogenesis instead."

DBA binds to galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine (Gal/GalNac).

"In the rat tibia epiphyseal plate, binding of DBA, which reacts with N-acetylgalactoseamine residues, was detected on the surface of perivascular cells in the erosion zone. Other cell types such as osteoblasts and chondrocytes did not react to DBA. DBA-positive cells could differentiate to osteoblasts. However, DBA-positive cells did not show alkaline phosphatase activity. [There's] a general reduction in lectin reactivity during chondrogenesis. DBA interactions with cells may induce chondrification and ossification as DBA reactivity is lost."

This study may provide insights as to why DBA can induce chondrogenesis:

Ultrastructural, enzyme-, lectin, and immunohistochemical studies of the erosion zone in rat tibiae.

"In growth plate erosion zones, perivascular cells directly connected to blood capillaries were seen invading cartilage. These cells contained a well-developed rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus in their cytoplasm and formed finger-like cytoplasmic processes toward uncalcified transverse cartilage walls. These processes were seen to stretch as far as the degenerated chondrocytes located in the calcified layer of the growth plate. These perivascular cells showed neither alkaline phosphatase activity nor tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity. Dolichos Biflorus agglutinin (DBA) [was stained for] on the perivascular cells. No reactivity for DBA was detected on either endothelial cells, osteoblasts, chondroclasts, or osteoclasts. Perivascular cells neither expressed CD44, which was localized on the plasma membrane of chondroclasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes, nor were surrounded by laminin. Perivascular cells in the erosion zone are distinct from endothelial cells, osteoblasts, chondroclasts, and osteoclasts; that they may resorb uncalcified cartilage matrix and degenerated chondrocytes; and that perivascular cells may play an important role in the capillary invasion during the process of endochondral ossification."

"Pericytes or perivascular cells differentiate into osteoblasts"<-maybe they can differentiate into chondrocytes as well.

"Endochondral ossification involves the resorption of uncalcified cartilage matrices and degenerated chondrocytes by DBApositive perivascular cells in the erosion zone. DBA positive perivascular cells are distinct from osteoblasts and the cells of osteoclast lineage."

So how DBA can increase height and chondrogenesis is still unknown.

Dolichos biflorus is a type of plant and is available for sale: Lowat 90 Veg Caps.

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