Tuesday, August 7, 2012

Tall with Pomegranate or just Puerarin?

Pomegranate is available for sale: Source Naturals Pomegranate Extract 500mg, 240 Tablets

Effects of pomegranate extracts on cartilage, bone and mesenchymal cells of mouse fetuses.

"Pomegranate is a rich source of polyphenols, which are believed to be responsible for the oestrogenic activities of extracts of this fruit in mice. One of these potential activities is the prevention of bone loss. The objectives of the present study were to determine the effects of pomegranate extract on chondrogenesis and osteogenesis in mouse embryos in vivo and limb bud cultures in vitro. A total of fifty pregnant Balb/c mice were given vehicle, pomegranate juice extract (PJE), pomegranate husk extract (PHE) or a mixture of husk and juice extract (PME). Their embryos were stained with alizarin red S and alcian blue, and the length of the femur, tibia and their ossification zones were measured on day 19 of gestation. Bone Ca content in pregnant mice was also measured. Mice treated with PJE showed an increase in bone Ca content. Dietary supplementation with all extracts significantly increased embryo femur length{growth rate though or permanent length} and osteogenesis index. Mesenchymal cells from fetal limb buds were cultured and exposed to 10, 100, 1000 and 10 000 μg/ml of PJE, PHE or PME. The number of viable cells was greater in cultures exposed to the extracts than in control cultures. The number of cartilage nodules and their diameters were greater in extract-treated cell cultures, a finding which reflected increased cell proliferation and differentiation rates."

Pomegranate juice extract increased femur length by about 10%.

Interestingly Pomegranate reduced crown-rump length and body weight.

"Feeding with PJE increased bone Ca content in pregnant mice. "

"pomegranate seed oil contains punicic acid, ellagic acid, steroidal oestrogen, oestrone and non-steroidal phyto-oestrogens including comesten, coumoestrol, and isoflavones, genistein and daidzein"<-since it has so many ingredients some can be height decreasing, neutral, or height increasing.  Genistein jumps out immediately as potentially height decreasing.

"the ossified zones of the limb bones were longer in extract-treated fetuses compared with the controls."

Despite advertisements that POM Wonderful is 50% as effective as Viagra, Pomegranate juice reduces oxidized low-density lipoprotein downregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in human coronary endothelial cells., states that pomegranate juice reduces cGMP levels meaning that it is not an NO/CNP pathway stimulant like Viagra.

Growth Inhibitory, Antiandrogenic, and Pro-apoptotic Effects of Punicic Acid in LNCaP Human Prostate Cancer Cells., states that Punicic acid may have growth inhibitory effects.

IGF-II down regulation associated cell cycle arrest in colon cancer cells exposed to phenolic antioxidant ellagic acid., states that ellagic acid may be associated with IGF-II down regulation.

It's likely that daidzen is the only height increasing compound of pomegranate but it does show that daidzen can overcome potentially height decreasing ingredients for net height gain.

Pomegranate Juice Supplementation Alters Utero-Placental Vascular Function and Fetal Growth in the eNOS−/− Mouse Model of Fetal Growth Restriction

"The eNOS−/− mouse provides a well-characterized model of fetal growth restriction (FGR) with altered uterine and umbilical artery function and reduced utero- and feto-placental blood flow. Pomegranate juice (PJ), which is rich in antioxidants and bioactive polyphenols, has been posited as a beneficial dietary supplement to promote cardiovascular health. We hypothesized that maternal supplementation with PJ will improve uterine and umbilical artery function and thereby enhance fetal growth in the eNOS−/− mouse model of FGR. Wild type (WT, C57Bl/6J) and eNOS−/− mice were supplemented from E12.5-18.5 with either PJ in their drinking water or water alone. At E18.5 uterine (UtA) and umbilical (UmbA) arteries were isolated for study of vascular function, fetuses and placentas were weighed and fetal biometric measurements taken. PJ supplementation significantly increased UtA basal tone (both genotypes) and enhanced phenylephrine-induced contraction in eNOS−/− but not WT mice. Conversely PJ significantly reduced UtA relaxation in response to both acetylcholine (Ach) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP), endothelium dependent and independent vasodilators respectively from WT but not eNOS−/− mice. UmbA sensitivity to U46619-mediated contraction was increased by PJ supplementation in WT mice; PJ enhanced contraction and relaxation of UmbA to Ach and SNP respectively in both genotypes. Contrary to our hypothesis, the changes in artery function induced by PJ were not associated with an increase in fetal weight. However, PJ supplementation reduced litter size and fetal abdominal and head circumference in both genotypes. Collectively the data do not support maternal PJ supplementation as a safe or effective treatment for FGR."

"the polyphenols rutin, catechin and quercetin, which are all present in PJ"

Herbal Remedies as Potential in Cartilage Tissue Engineering: An Overview of New Therapeutic Approaches and Strategies

"Though new treatment approaches, in particular with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that integrate the tissue engineering (TE) of cartilage tissue, are promising, they are not only expensive but more often do not lead to the regeneration of joint cartilage. Therefore, there is an increasing need for novel, safe, and more effective alternatives to promote cartilage joint regeneration and TE. Indeed, naturally occurring phytochemical compounds (herbal remedies) have a great anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anabolic potential, and they have received much attention for the development of new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, including the prevention of age-related OA and cartilage TE. This paper summarizes recent research on herbal remedies and their chondroinductive and chondroprotective effects on cartilage and progenitor cells, and it also emphasizes the possibilities that exist in this research area, especially with regard to the nutritional support of cartilage regeneration and TE, which may not benefit from non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)."

"The unique architecture of articular cartilage consists of chondrocytes that produce and are embedded in a cartilage-specific, highly organized extracellular matrix (ECM). The main component of this ECM is water (60–80%), which is closely bound to the macromolecular components that consist of 40–50% collagens (90% collagen type II: COL2A1) and 20–25% of various specialized proteoglycans (aggrecan, decorin, biglycan, and fibromodulin). The cartilage-specific ECM is not only synthesized by the chondrocytes, as they are also in close functional interaction with each other and their production in the chondrocytes is stimulated and directly influenced by highly sensitive microenvironmental conditions that stimulate cartilage homeostasis and repair"

"Herbal remedy-related search terms were ‘icariin,’ ‘pomegranate,’ ‘ginger,’ ‘avocado/soybean unsaponifiable (ASU),’ ‘curcumin,’ and ‘resveratrol,"

circumin and giner had mainly anti-inflammatory effects.

Icariin enhanced the proliferation of chondrocytes.

Avacado, pomegranate, resveratrol, and soybeans had mainly anti-inflammatory but possibly had some chondrogenic effects.

"icariin has been shown to be a safe and effective chondrocyte anabolic agent that stimulates chondrocyte proliferation and attenuates the breakdown of the ECM by the activation of the miR-206 targeting of cathepsin K in rats, making it a promising candidate for supporting chondrogenesis in TE"

"treatment with icariin resulted in an increased cartilage thickness; an upregulated expression of COL2A1; a reduced chondrocyte hypertrophy; a downregulated expression of collagen type X and MMP13; an upregulated expression of AGC, SOX9, and parathyroid hormone related proteins (PHrP); and a down-regulation of Indian hedgehog (Ihh) and genes regulated by Ihh"

"resveratrol offers such promising chondroprotective and inductive effects"

"A large body of evidence has shown that a plethora of plants have solid pharmacological properties, including anti-inflammatory, anti-catabolic, and anti-apoptotic effects, and that they are capable to protect cartilage from the inflammatory and catabolic effects of various pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, TNF-α, or TNF-β and destructive enzymes such as MMPs and inflammation mediators, COX-2, released by stimulated and inflamed synoviocytes and by inflammation-induced activated articular cartilage cells in the joints."

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