Sunday, May 23, 2010


Overexpression of Smurf2 Stimulates Endochondral Ossification Through Upregulation of β-Catenin

"Ectopic expression of Smurf2 in chondrocytes and perichondrial cells accelerated endochondral ossification by stimulating chondrocyte maturation and osteoblast development through upregulation of β-catenin in Col2a1-Smurf2 embryos."

"Ectopic overexpression of Smurf2 driven by the Col2a1 promoter was detected in chondrocytes and in the perichondrium/periosteum of 16.5 dpc transgenic limbs. Ectopic Smurf2 expression in cells of the chondrogenic lineage inhibited chondrocyte differentiation and stimulated maturation; ectopic Smurf2 in cells of the osteoblastic lineage stimulated osteoblast differentiation. Mechanistically, this could be caused by a dramatic increase in the expression of β-catenin protein levels in the chondrocytes and perichondrial/periosteal cells of the Col2a1-Smurf2 limbs."

"Smurf2 directly interacts with Smad1 and Smad2 and indirectly interacts with the type I receptor of TGFβ and β-catenin through an adaptor Smad7 for ubiquitination and proteasome-dependent degradation.math image"

"we observed that the number of prehypertrophic and hypertrophic chondrocytes in a defined area was increased in the transgenic growth plates versus that in the wildtype counterparts"<-Endochondral ossification was also accelerated but sometimes this can result in increased height.

"the entire length of the transgenic limb was shorter"<-so Too much Smurf2 can decrease height.

"upregulation of β-catenin in Col2a1-Smurf2 transgenic limbs is caused by a decrease in GSK-3β by Smurf2."

According to Smurf2 regulates the senescence response and suppresses tumorigenesis in mice., Smurf2 is involved in cellular senescence and that may be the primary reason for decreasing height regardless of anything else.

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