Tuesday, March 9, 2010

The types of fractures and which ones can be used to increase height

Greenstick, spiral and transverse fractures can be used to increase height.  The other kinds of fractures may possibly decrease height(compression) or are too traumatic(communited or compound).  All microfractures are greenstick fractures technically as a greenstick fracture is an incomplete fracture.  You can see how the greenstick fracture is bending the bone in one way.  If a greenstick fracture occurred in the other way as well it would result in a straighter bone and an increase in height!  It would occur the same way on a microscopic level as long as every part of the cortical bone was eventually broken.

Exercises that would cause greenstick and spiral forces:

If you have a transverse fracture there would be no way to avoid the hematomma as a blood vessal would have to be injured.  Greenstick fractures will eventually increase height as the spongy bone will adapt to the change in the height of the cortical bone.

Hitting your bones with a hammer or weight would be one way to cause a greenstick microfracture.  Bone is composed of collagen which gives bone it's elasticity when you hit the bone it expands like when you flick a rubber band.  This gives bone the deformation it needs and causes our precious microfractures!  The only problem is that muscle is in the way of getting to our bones.  You can hit the muscle which then hits the bone or you can use jumping and try to get the entire bone.

Spiral fractures are induced when one part of your body is stationary(such as the foot) and another part is twisted(such as the feumr) for example being tackled.  So what you could do is hold dumbells in your hands and twist right and left.  Or you can get on the leg extension machine and twist your body right and left whilst using the weight to keep your lower leg immobile.

The severity of fracture should not matter in increasing height as long as the fracture occcurs such a way to create space for new cortical bone to grow and that space occurs in a longitudinal direction.

The most important criteria for a an effective fracture is that it hits the cortical bone.  Specifically, an osteon.  It also matters whether the microfracture occurs when the bone is in a stretched or compressed state.  A microcrack occuring in a compressed state is also one that is likely to leave the bone in a slightly more compressed state.  This is why spiral or bending forces are best as they also stretch the bone longitudinally.

In vitro hypertrophy and calcification of human fracture haematoma-derived cells in chondrogenic differentiation.

"A fracture haematoma contains multilineage mesenchymal progenitor cells.  The haematoma [may provide] a source of chondrogenic cells for endochondral ossification during fracture healing and preservation of the cells contributed to biological fracture healing. In this study, we investigated whether haematoma-derived cells (HCs) could differentiate into hypertrophic chondrocytes and finally induce calcification of the extracellular matrix in vitro.
Fracture haematomas were obtained from four patients. HCs were cultured for five weeks under conditions that induce chondrogenic differentiation, followed by two weeks of hypertrophic induction using a pellet culture system. The pellets were analysed histologically and immunohistochemically. The gene expression levels of chondrogenic, hypertrophic, osteogenic, and angiogenic markers were measured by real-time PCR.
The histological and immunohistochemical analyses revealed that HCs differentiated into chondrocytes and hypertrophic chondrocytes, followed by calcification of the extracellular matrix. This sequential differentiation was also reflected in the gene expression profiles. After chondrogenic induction, expression of osteogenic and angiogenic markers was not significantly upregulated. However, the expression of these markers was significantly upregulated following hypertrophic induction. These in vitro observations mimicked the process of endochondral ossification during fracture healing."

Osteogenic genes were extremely upregulated at 7 weeks but were minorly upregulated at 5 weeks.  The osteogenic gene shared between this study and LSJL was osteocalcin, Osteocalcin was minorly upregulated by LSJL.

This next study helps us to understand what size of fracture determines osteogenic versus chondrogenic differentiation.  If we do want to use a fracture method to increase height we want to use a method that can cause chondrogenesis and not osteogenesis.

Imaging Early Stage Osteogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

" In this study, we implemented an in vivo imaging methodology to specifically track early events such as differentiation of implanted human MSCs (hMSCs). This system uses the collagen type 1 (Col1α1) promoter to drive expression of firefly luciferase (luc) in addition to a constitutively active promoter to drive the expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP). The resulting dual-promoter reporter gene system provides the opportunity for osteogenic differentiation-specific luc expression for in vivo imaging and constitutive expression of GFP for cell sorting. The function of this dual-promoter reporter gene was validated both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the ability of this dual-promoter reporter system to image an early event of osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs was demonstrated in a murine segmental bone defect model in which reporter-labeled hMSCs were seeded into an alginate hydrogel scaffold and implanted directly into the defect. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) was performed to visualize the turn-on of Col1α1 upon osteogenic differentiation and followed by X-ray imaging to assess the healing process for correlation with histological analyses."

" In current study, the bone defect consisted of a complete 1.5 mm segmental gap in the femoral diaphysis that necessitated fixation of a plate for stabilization of the femur. "

"Based on preliminary data indicating peaks of ALP activity within 2 weeks and elevated levels of calcium deposition by 30 days post-fracture"<-maybe there could have been some endochondral ossification in there.

Osteogenic differentiation signals occurred around 8 days after implimentation.

1 comment:

  1. hey.. it's sky here.. isn't it time that we height seekers unite at last?

    sky from easyheight